CEA AS Syllabus

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Unit 1   Unit 2

In the exam you are expected to be able to:

Unit 1 

Forces, Energy, and Electricity

1.1 Physical Quantities

1.1.1

Describe all physical quantities as consisting of a numerical magnitude and unit;

Induction 1

1.1.2

state the base units of mass, length, time, current, temperature, and amount of substance and be able to express other quantities in terms of these units;

Induction 1

1.1.3

recall and use the prefixes T, G, M, k, c, m, μ, n, p and f, and present these in standard form.

Induction 1

Induction 2

Note:  You are advised to read the Induction notes in full.  Even if the topics or skills are not specified on the syllabus, you will be expected to use them as a matter of course throughout your studies as well as in the examinations.

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1.2 Scalars and Vectors

1.2.1

Distinguish between and give examples of scalar and vector quantity;

Mechanics 1

1.2.2

resolve a vector into two perpendicular components;

Mechanics 1

1.2.3

calculate the resultant of two coplanar vectors by calculation or scale drawing, with calculations limited to two perpendicular vectors;

Mechanics 2

1.2.4

solve problems that include two or three coplanar forces acting at a point, in the context of equilibrium.

Mechanics 2

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1.3 Principle of Moments

1.3.1

Define the moment of a force about a point;

Mechanics 3

1.3.2

use the concept of centre of gravity;

Mechanics 3

1.3.3

recall and use the principle of moments.

Mechanics 3

Further Examples using Moments are to be found in Mechanics 4 and Mechanics 5

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1.4  Linear Motion

1.4.1

Define displacement, velocity, average velocity and acceleration;

Mechanics 6

1.4.2

recall and use the equations of motion for uniform acceleration;

(These equations will not appear on the datasheet; you have to learn them.  Where the word recall is not shown, these equations are on the datasheet.)

Mechanics 6

1.4.3

describe an experiment using light gates and computer software to measure acceleration of free fall, g;

Mechanics 7

1.4.4

interpret, qualitatively and quantitatively, velocity-time and displacement-time graphs for motion with uniform and non-uniform acceleration.

Mechanics 6

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1.5 Dynamics

1.5.1

Describe projectile motion;

Mechanics 8

1.5.2

explain projectile motion as being caused by a uniform velocity in one direction and a uniform acceleration in a perpendicular direction;

Mechanics 8

1.5.3

apply the equations of motion to projectile motion, excluding air resistance;

Mechanics 8

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1.6  Newton's Laws of Motion

1.6.1

State Newton’s laws of motion;

Mechanics 10

1.6.2

Apply the laws to simple situations;

Mechanics 10

1.6.3

recall and use the equation F = ma, where mass is constant;

Mechanics 10

1.6.4

demonstrate an understanding that friction is a force that opposes motion.

Mechanics 8

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1.7  Linear Momentum and Impulse

1.7.1

Define momentum;

Mechanics 11

1.7.2

calculate momentum;

Mechanics 11

1.7.3

apply the principle of the conservation of linear momentum;

Mechanics 12

1.7.4

perform calculations involving collisions in one dimension;

Mechanics 12

1.7.5

describe and confirm collisions as elastic or inelastic by calculation;

Mechanics 12

1.7.6

define impulse as the product F × t ;

Mechanics 11

1.7.7

recall and use the equation Ft = mv - mu ;

Mechanics 11

1.7.8

apply the impulse-momentum relationship to impact situations;

Mechanics 11

1.7.9

define Newton’s second law in terms of momentum.

Mechanics 11

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1.8  Work done, Potential Energy, and Kinetic Energy

1.8.1

Define work done, potential energy and kinetic energy;

Mechanics 15

1.8.2

show that when work is done, energy is transferred from one form to another;

Mechanics 13

1.8.3

calculate the work done for constant forces, including forces not along the line of motion;

Mechanics 13

1.8.4

recall and use the equations Δp.e. = mgΔh and k.e. = ½ mv² ;

Mechanics 15

1.8.5

state the principle of conservation of energy and use it to calculate exchanges between gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy;

Mechanics 15

1.8.6

use the equation ½mv² ‒ ½ mu² = Fs for a constant force;

Mechanics 15

1.8.7

recall and use P= Work done ÷ time taken, P = Fv

and efficiency = useful (energy power) output ÷ energy (power) input ;

Mechanics 15

Mechanics 14

1.8.8

demonstrate an understanding of the importance to society of energy conservation and energy efficiency.

Mechanics 15

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1.9 Electric current, Charge, Potential Difference and Electromotive Force

1.9.1

Recall and use the equation I = Q/t;

Electricity 1

1.9.2

recall and use the equations V = W/q, V = P/I;

Electricity 1

Electricity 5

1.9.3

define the volt;

Electricity 1

1.9.4

define electromotive force, E;

Electricity 8

1.9.5

distinguish between electromotive force and potential difference.

Electricity 8

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1.10 Resistance and resistivity

1.10.1

Perform experiments to confirm the relationships between current, voltage and resistance in series and parallel circuits;

Electricity 7

1.10.2

recall and use the equations for resistors in series and in parallel;

Electricity 7

1.10.3

recall and use the equations R = V/I and P = I²R ;

Electricity 5

1.10.4

define resistivity;

Electricity 4

1.10.5

recall and use the equation R = ρl/A ;

Electricity 4

1.10.6

perform and describe an experiment to measure resistivity;

Electricity 4

1.10.7

demonstrate knowledge and simple understanding of superconductivity;

Electricity 4

1.10.8

state Ohm’s law;

Electricity 2

1.10.9

distinguish between ohmic and non-ohmic behaviour;

Electricity 3

1.10.10

perform experiments to determine the current-voltage characteristics for metallic conductors, including wire at a constant temperature and the filament of a bulb;

Electricity 3

1.10.11

sketch and describe the current-voltage characteristics for a metallic conductor, a diode and a negative temperature coefficient (ntc) thermistor;

Electricity 3

1.10.12

sketch and explain the variation with temperature of the resistance of a metallic conductor and a negative temperature coefficient (ntc) thermistor;

Electricity 6

1.10.13

perform an experiment to show the variation with temperature of the resistance of a negative temperature coefficient (ntc) thermistor.

Electricity 3

Electricity 6

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1.11 Internal Resistance and Electromotive Force

1.11.1

demonstrate an understanding of the simple consequences of internal resistance of a source for external circuits;

Electricity 8

1.11.2

use the equation V = E - Ir ;

Electricity 8

1.11.3

perform and describe an experiment to measure internal resistance and the electromotive force;

Electricity 8

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1.12 Potential Divider Circuits

1.12.1

demonstrate an understanding of the use of a potential divider to supply variable potential difference from a fixed power supply;

Electricity 6

1.12.2

demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the use of the potential divider in lighting and heating
control circuits;

Electricity 6

1.12.3

calculate the output voltages in loaded circuits using the equation:

In the notes, R2 is used on the top line of the equation

Electricity 6

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Unit 2

Waves, Photons and Astronomy

2.1 Waves

2.1.1

Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the terms transverse wave and longitudinal wave;

Waves 2

2.1.2

categorise waves as transverse or longitudinal;

Waves 2

2.1.3

analyse graphs to obtain data on amplitude, period, frequency, wavelength and phase;

Waves 1

2.1.4

demonstrate an understanding that polarisation is a phenomenon associated with transverse waves;

Waves 2

2.1.5

recall and use the equations f = 1/T and v = fλ ;

Waves 1

2.1.6

recall radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays as regions of the electromagnetic spectrum;

Particle Physics 3

2.1.7

state typical wavelengths for each of these regions;

Particle Physics 3

2.1.8

recall that the wavelength of blue light is 400 nm and red light is 700 nm.

Particle Physics 3

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2.2 Refraction

2.2.1

perform and describe an experiment to verify Snell’s law and measure the refractive index;

Waves 6

2.2.2

recall and use the equations:

Waves 6

2.2.3

demonstrate knowledge and understanding of total internal reflection;

Waves 6

2.2.4

recall and use the equation:

Waves 6

2.2.5

demonstrate an understanding of the physical principle of the step index optical fibre, including total internal reflection at the core/cladding boundary and the speed in the core;

Waves 6

2.2.6

describe the structure of a flexible endoscope and discuss examples of its application in medicine and industry.

Medical Physics 6

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2.3 Lenses

2.3.1

Draw ray diagrams for converging and diverging lenses;

Medical Physics 2

2.3.2

use the equation:

 

for converging anddiverging lenses;

Medical Physics 2

2.3.3

verify experimentally the lens equation and the evaluation of f, the focal length of a converging lens, for real images only;

Medical Physics 2

2.3.4

define m as the ratio of the image height to the object height, or:

;

(M is used in the notes.)

Medical Physics 2

2.3.5

recall and use the equation:

Medical Physics 2

2.3.6

describe the use of lenses to correct myopia and hypermetropia;

Medical Physics 2

2.3.7

perform calculations on the correction of long and short sight, including a calculation of the new range of vision;

Medical Physics 2

2.3.8

perform calculations involving the power of lenses.

Medical Physics 2

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2.4 Superposition, interference, and diffraction

2.4.1

Illustrate the concept of superposition by the graphical addition of two sinusoidal waves;

Waves 3

2.4.2

demonstrate an understanding of the conditions required to produce standing waves;

Waves 4

2.4.3

demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the graphical representation of standing waves in stretched strings, and air in pipes closed at one end;

Waves 5

2.4.4

identify, graphically, the modes of vibration of stretched strings and air in a pipe closed at one end, without reference to overtone and harmonic terminology;

Waves 5

2.4.5

identify node and antinode positions;

Waves 4

2.4.6

perform and describe an experiment to measure the speed of sound in air using a resonance tube (end correction is not required);

Waves 5

2.4.7

demonstrate an understanding of the conditions for observable interference;

Waves 7

Physics 6 Tutorial 7

2.4.8

demonstrate an understanding of the significance of path difference and phase difference in explaining
interference effects;  (Physics 6 Tutorial 7 discusses interference in more depth.)

Waves 7

Physics 6 Tutorial 7

2.4.9

describe Young’s slits interference experiment to measure the wavelength of monochromatic light;

Waves 7

2.4.10

use the equation:

;

(In the notes, the equation used is λ = ws/D)

Waves 7

2.4.11

describe and explain diffraction phenomena at a single slit;

Waves 8

2.4.12

state qualitatively and draw diagrams to illustrate the effect of aperture size on diffraction;

Waves 8

2.4.13

use the equation d sin θ = nλ for a diffraction grating;

Waves 8

2.4.14

describe the use of a diffraction grating and a laser to measure wavelength;

Waves 8

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2.5 Quantum Physics

2.5.1

Recall and use the equation Ephoton = hf ;

Particles 3

Quantum 1

2.5.2

use the photon model to explain the photoelectric effect qualitatively using the terms photon energy and work function;

Quantum 2

2.5.3

use the equation ½mvmax2 = hf - hf0 ;

Quantum 2

2.5.4

demonstrate an understanding that electrons exist in energy levels in atoms;

Quantum 3

2.5.5

recall and use the equation hf = ΔE ;

Quantum 4

2.5.6

provide a simple explanation of laser action, using the terms population inversion and metastable state;

Quantum Physics 8

2.5.7

demonstrate an understanding of the production of X-rays by the process of electron movement between energy levels;

Medical Physics 7

2.5.8

describe the physical principles of CT scanning and conventional X-rays.

Medical Physics 7

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2.6  Wave Particle Duality

2.6.1

Categorise electromagnetic wave phenomena as being explained by the wave model, the photon model or both;

Particles 3

Quantum 1

2.6.2

describe electron diffraction;

Quantum 6

2.6.3

use the de Broglie equation:

.

Quantum 6

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2.7  Astronomy

2.7.1

Recall, demonstrate an understanding of and apply the classical equations for Doppler shift to find the wavelength of the waves received by a stationary observer from a moving source;

Astrophysics 7

2.7.2

demonstrate an understanding of the difference between cosmological red shift and Doppler red shift;

Astrophysics 7

2.7.3

calculate the cosmological red shift parameter, z, of a receding galaxy using the equation:

 

and use the equation:


 

 to find the recession speed v, where v << c ;

Astrophysics 7

2.7.4

use Hubble’s Law v = H0d to estimate the distance, d, to a distant galaxy, given the value of its speed of
recession, v, and the Hubble constant, H0 ≈ 2.4 × 10-18 s-1 ;

Astrophysics 7

2.7.5

recall and use:

to estimate the age of the universe.

Astrophysics 7

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That is it for the AS syllabus