CEA A2 Syllabus

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Unit 4     Unit 5

In the exam you are expected to be able to:

Unit 4

Deformation of Solids, Thermal Physics, Circular Motion, Oscillations, Atomic, and Nuclear Physics

4.1  Deformation of Solids

4.1.1

State Hooke’s law and use F = kx to solve simple problems;

Materials 2

4.1.2

demonstrate an understanding of the terms elastic and plastic deformation and elastic limit;

Materials 3

4.1.3

distinguish between limit of proportionality and elastic limit;

Materials 3

4.1.4

define stress, strain and the Young modulus;

Materials 3

4.1.5

perform and describe an experiment to determine the Young modulus;

Materials 3

4.1.6

use the equation for strain energy, E = ½Fx = ½kx 2 ;

Materials 3

4.1.7

demonstrate an understanding of the importance of the stress, strain and Young modulus of a material when making design and economic decisions about materials use.

General material properties can be seen in Materials 1

Materials 3

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4.2  Thermal Physics

4.2.1

Describe simple experiments on the behaviour of gases to show that pV = constant for a fixed mass of
gas at constant temperature, P/T = constant for a fixed mass of gas at constant volume, and V/T = constant for a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure, leading to the equation:

 ;

Thermal 2

4.2.2

recall and use the ideal gas equation pV = nRT ;

(These equations will not appear on the datasheet; you have to learn them.  Where the word recall is not shown, these equations are on the datasheet.)

Thermal 2

4.2.3

recall and use the ideal gas equation in the form pV = NkT;

Thermal 2

4.2.4

Demonstrate an understanding of the concept of internal energy as the random distribution of potential and kinetic energy among molecules;

Thermal 3

4.2.5

use the equation:

;

Thermal 3

4.2.6

use the equation for average molecular kinetic energy:

;

Thermal 3

4.2.7

demonstrate an understanding of the concept of absolute zero of temperature;

Thermal 2

4.2.8

perform and describe an electrical method for determining specific heat capacity;

Thermal 1

4.2.9

use the equation Q = mcΔӨ .

Thermal 1

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4.3  Uniform Circular Motion

4.3.1

Demonstrate an understanding of the concept of angular velocity;

Further Mechanics 1

4.3.2

recall and use the equation v=rω ;

Further Mechanics 1

4.3.3

apply the relationship:

to motion in a circle at constant speed.

(Further examples of Circular Motion can be found in Further Mechanics 2.)

Further Mechanics 1

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4.4  Simple Harmonic Motion

4.4.1

Define simple harmonic motion (SHM) using the equation a = -ω2 x, where ω = 2πf ;

Further Mechanics 4

4.4.2

perform calculations using the equation x = A cos ωt ;

Further Mechanics 4

4.4.3

investigate experimentally and graphically the motion of the simple pendulum and the loaded spiral spring;

Further Mechanics 5

4.4.4

use the equations:

and ;

Further Mechanics 5

4.4.5

demonstrate an understanding of SHM graphs, including measuring velocity from the gradient of a displacement-time graph;

Further Mechanics 4

4.4.6

use the terms free vibrations, forced vibrations, resonance and damping in this context;

Further Mechanics 3

4.4.7

demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of light damping, over-damping and critical damping;

Further Mechanics 3

4.4.8

describe mechanical examples of resonance and damping;

Further Mechanics 3

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4.5  The Nucleus

4.5.1

Describe alpha-particle scattering as evidence of the existence of atomic nuclei;

Nuclear 2

4.5.2

interpret the variation of nuclear radius with nucleon number;

Nuclear 6

4.5.3

use the equation:

 to estimate the density of nuclear matter.

Nuclear 6

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4.6  Nuclear Decay

4.6.1

Demonstrate an understanding of how the nature of alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation determines their penetration and range;

Nuclear 1

Particles 2

4.6.2

calculate changes to nucleon number and proton number as a result of emissions;

Nuclear 3

4.6.3

demonstrate an understanding of the random and exponential nature of radioactive decay;

Nuclear 5

4.6.4

use the equation A = - λN, where λ is defined as the fraction per second of the decaying atoms;

Nuclear 5

4.6.5

use the equation A = A0e -λt ,where A is the activity;

Nuclear 5

4.6.6

define half-life;

Nuclear 5

4.6.7

use the equation:

Nuclear 5

4.6.8

describe an experiment to measure half-life of a radioactive source.

(A model is described here rather than the decay of a particular isotope.)

Particles 2

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4.7 Nuclear Energy

4.7.1

Demonstrate an understanding of the equivalence of mass and energy;

Nuclear 7

4.7.2

recall and use the equation E = Δmc 2 and demonstrate an understanding that it applies to all energy changes;

Nuclear 7

4.7.3

describe how the binding energy per nucleon varies with mass number;

Nuclear 7

4.7.4

describe the principles of fission and fusion with reference to the binding energy per nucleon curve.

Nuclear 7

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4.8  Nuclear Fission and Fusion

4.8.1

demonstrate an understanding of the terms chain reaction, critical size, moderators, control rods,
cooling system and reactor shielding, as used in describing a fission reactor;

Nuclear 8

4.8.2

demonstrate an understanding of the social, environmental, security and economic issues surrounding the use of nuclear power as a solution to a future energy crisis;

Nuclear 8

4.8.3

describe the ITER (tokamak concept) fusion reactor in terms of fuel, D-T reaction, temperature required, plasma, three methods of plasma heating, vacuum vessel, blanket, magnetic confinement of plasma, difficulties of achieving fusion on a practical terrestrial scale, and advantages and disadvantages of fusion;

Physics 6 Tutorial 12

4.8.4

describe the following methods of plasma confinement: gravitational, inertial and magnetic.

Physics 6 Tutorial 12

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Unit 5 

Fields, Capacitors, and Magnetic Fields

5.1  Force Fields

5.1.1

explain the concept of a field of force, using field lines to describe the field, indicate its direction and show the field strength.

Fields 1

Fields 4

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5.2  Gravitational Fields

5.2.1

Define gravitational field strength;

Fields 1

5.2.2

recall and use the equation:

Fields 1

5.2.3

state Newton’s law of universal gravitation;

Fields 1

5.2.4

recall and use the equation for the gravitational force between point masses:

Fields 1

5.2.5

recall and apply the equation for gravitational field strength:

and use this equation to calculate the mass, m;

Fields 1

5.2.6

apply knowledge of circular motion to planetary and satellite motion;

Fields 3

5.2.7

show that the mathematical form of Kepler’s third law (t 2 proportional to r 3 ) is consistent with Newton’s law of universal gravitation;

Fields 3

5.2.8

demonstrate an understanding of the unique conditions of period, position and direction of rotation required of a geostationary satellite;

Fields 3

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5.3  Electric Fields

5.3.1

Define electric field strength;

Fields 4

5.3.2

recall and use the equation:

;

Fields 4

5.3.3

state Coulomb’s law for the force between point charges;

Fields 4

5.3.4

recall and use the equation for the force between two point charges:

and ε0 is the permittivity of a vacuum;

Fields 4

5.3.5

recall and use the equation for the electric field strength due to a point charge:

Fields 4

5.3.6

recall that for a uniform electric field, the field strength is constant, and recall and use the equation E = V/d ;

Fields 4

5.3.7

state the similarities and differences in gravitational and electric fields.

Fields 5

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5.4  Capacitors

5.4.1

Define capacitance;

Capacitors 1

5.4.2

recall and use the equation C = Q/V ;

Capacitors 1

5.4.3

define the unit of capacitance, the farad;

Capacitors 1

5.4.4

recall and use the equation E = 1/2 QV or its equivalent for calculating the energy of a charged capacitor;

Capacitors 1

5.4.5

recall and use the equations for capacitors in series and in parallel;

Capacitors 4

5.4.6

perform and describe experiments to demonstrate the charge and discharge of a capacitor;

Capacitors 2

5.4.7

confirm the exponential nature of capacitor discharge using V or I discharge curves;

Capacitors 2

5.4.8

use the equations:

and ;

Capacitors 2

5.4.9

define time constant and use the equation τ= RC ;

Capacitors 2

5.4.10

perform and describe an experiment to determine the time constant for R-C circuits;

Capacitors 2

5.4.11

apply knowledge and understanding of time constants and stored energy to electronic flash guns and defibrillators.

(Further notes on the Physics of Capacitors can be found in Capacitors 3)

Capacitors 2

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5.5  Magnetic Fields

5.5.1

Describe the shape and direction of the magnetic field produced by the current in a coil of wire and a long straight wire;

Magnetic Fields 1

5.5.2

demonstrate an understanding that there is a force on a current-carrying conductor in a perpendicular magnetic field and be able to predict the direction of the force;

Magnetic Fields 1

5.5.3

demonstrate an understanding that the forces produced on a current-carrying coil in a magnetic field is the principle behind the electric motor;

Magnetic Fields 2

5.5.4

recall and use the equation F = BIl ;

Magnetic Fields 1

5.5.5

define magnetic flux density;

Magnetic Fields 4

5.5.6

demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of magnetic flux and magnetic flux linkage;

Magnetic Fields 4

5.5.7

recall and use the equations for magnetic flux, φ = BA, and magnetic flux linkage, N φ = NBA;

Magnetic Fields 4

5.5.8

state, use and demonstrate experimentally Faraday’s and Lenz’s laws of electromagnetic induction;

Magnetic Fields 5

5.5.9

recall and calculate average induced e.m.f. as rate of change of flux linkage with time;

Magnetic Fields 5

5.5.10

demonstrate an understanding of the simple a.c. generator and use the equation E = BAN ω sinωt.

Magnetic Fields 6

5.5.11

describe how a transformer works;

Magnetic Fields 7

5.5.12

recall and use the equation:

for transformers;

Magnetic Fields 7

5.5.13

explain power losses in transformers and the advantages of high-voltage transmission of electricity;

Magnetic Fields 8

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5.6 Deflection of charged particles in electric and magnetic fields

5.6.1

Demonstrate an understanding that a charge in a uniform electric field experiences a force;

Magnetic Fields 3

5.6.2

recall and use the equation F = qE to calculate the magnitude of the force and determine the direction of the force;

Magnetic Fields 3

5.6.3

demonstrate an understanding that a moving charge in a uniform, perpendicular magnetic field experiences a force;

Magnetic Fields 3

5.6.4

recall and use the equation F = Bqv to calculate the magnitude of the force, and determine the direction of the force.

Magnetic Fields 3

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5.7  Particle Accelerators

5.7.1

Describe the basic principles of operation of a synchrotron;

Magnetic Fields 3

5.7.2

demonstrate an understanding of the concept of a relativistic mass increase as particles are accelerated towards the speed of light;

(Description only is needed.)

Turning Points 6

5.7.3

demonstrate an understanding of the concept of antimatter and that it can be produced using the collisions of high-energy particles from the accelerators;

Particles 6

5.7.4

describe the process of annihilation in terms of photon emission, and conservation of charge, energy and momentum.

Particles 6

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5.8  Fundamental Particles

5.8.1

Explain the concept of a fundamental particle;

Particles 5

5.8.2

identify the four fundamental forces and their associated exchange particles;

Particles 5

Particles 12

5.8.3

classify particles as gauge bosons, leptons and hadrons (mesons and baryons);

Particles 9

Particles 10

5.8.4

state examples of each class of particle;

Particles 9

Particles 10

5.8.5

describe the structure of hadrons in terms of quarks;

Particles 8

5.8.6

demonstrate an understanding of the concept of conservation of:
− charge;
− lepton number;
− baryon number;

Particles 11

5.8.7

describe β-decay in terms of the basic quark model.

Particles 11

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That is it for the A2 syllabus