  Edexcel A-Level Syllabus Home     AS    A-Level In the exam, you are expected to: Topic 6 - Further Mechanics 97 Understand how to use the equation impulse: (Newton’s second law of motion). 98 CORE PRACTICAL 9: Investigate the relationship between the force exerted on an object and its change of momentum. Mechanics 11 99 Understand how to apply conservation of linear momentum to problems in two dimensions. 100 CORE PRACTICAL 10: Use ICT to analyse collisions between small spheres, e.g. ball bearings on a table top. Mechanics 12 101 Understand how to determine whether a collision is elastic or inelastic. 102 Be able to derive and use the equation for the kinetic energy of a non-relativistic particle. Mechanics 11 103 Be able to express angular displacement in radians and in degrees, and convert between these units. 104 Understand what is meant by angular velocity and be able to use the equations: and Further Mechanics 1 105 Be able to use vector diagrams to derive the equations for centripetal acceleration: and understand how to use these equations. Further Mechanics 1 106 Understand that a resultant force (centripetal force) is required to produce and maintain circular motion. 107 Be able to use the equations for centripetal force: (Examples) Top Topic 7 - Electric and Magnetic Fields 108 Understand that an electric field (force field) is defined as a region where a charged particle experiences a force. 109 Understand that electric field strength is defined as: and be able to use this equation. 110 Be able to use the equation: for the force between two charges. 111 Be able to use the equation for the electric field due to a point charge. Fields 4 112 Know and understand the relation between electric field and electric potential. 113 Be able to use the equation: for an electric field between parallel plates. Fields 4 114 Be able to use: for a radial field. 115 Be able to draw and interpret diagrams using field lines and equipotentials to describe radial and uniform electric fields Fields 4 (Field lines) Fields 5 (Equipotentials) 116 Understand that capacitance is defined as: and be able to use this equation. 117 Be able to use the equation for the energy stored by a capacitor, be able to derive the equation from the area under a graph of potential difference against charge stored and be able to derive and use the equations: 118 Be able to draw and interpret charge and discharge curves for resistor capacitor circuits and understand the significance of the time constant RC. Capacitors 2 119 CORE PRACTICAL 11: Use an oscilloscope or data logger to display and analyse the potential difference (p.d.) across a capacitor as it charges and discharges through a resistor. Capacitors 2 120 Be able to use the equation: and derive and use related equations: and for exponential discharge in a resistor-capacitor circuit and the corresponding log equations: 121 Understand and use the terms magnetic flux density, flux, and flux linkage. Magnetic Fields 4 122 Be able to use the equation: and apply Fleming’s left-hand rule to charged particles moving in a magnetic field. 123 Be able to use the equation: and apply Fleming’s left-hand rule to current carrying conductors in a magnetic field. 124 Understand the factors affecting the e.m.f. induced in a coil when there is relative motion between the coil and a permanent magnet. 125 Understand the factors affecting the e.m.f. induced in a coil when there is a change of current in another coil linked with this coil. 126 Understand how to use Lenz’s law to predict the direction of an induced e.m.f., and how the prediction relates to energy conservation. 127 Understand how to use Faraday’s law to determine the magnitude of an induced e.m.f. and be able to use the equation that combines Faraday’s and Lenz's laws: 128 Understand what is meant by the terms frequency, period, peak value and root mean-square value when applied to alternating currents and potential differences. 129 Be able to use the equations: Top Topic 8 - Nuclear and Particle Physics 130 Understand what is meant by nucleon number (mass number) and proton number (atomic number). 131 Understand how large-angle alpha particle scattering gives evidence for a nuclear model of the atom and how our understanding of atomic structure has changed over time. 132 Understand that electrons are released in the process of thermionic emission and how they can be accelerated by electric and magnetic fields. 133 Understand the role of electric and magnetic fields in particle accelerators (linac and cyclotron) and detectors (general principles of ionisation and deflection only). 134 Be able to derive and use the equation: for a charged particle in a magnetic field. 135 Be able to apply conservation of charge, energy and momentum to interactions between particles and interpret particle tracks. 136 Understand why high energies are required to investigate the structure of nucleons. 137 Be able to use the equation: in situations involving the creation and annihilation of matter and antimatter particles 138 Be able to use MeV and GeV (energy) and MeV/c2, GeV/c2 (mass) and convert between these and SI units. 139 Understand situations in which the relativistic increase in particle lifetime is significant (use of relativistic equations not required). 140 Know that in the standard quark-lepton model particles can be classified as: ● baryons (e.g. neutrons and protons) which are made from three quarks; ● mesons (e.g. pions) which are made from a quark and an antiquark; ● leptons (e.g. electrons and neutrinos) which are fundamental particles; ● photons; and that the symmetry of the model predicted the top quark. 141 Know that every particle has a corresponding antiparticle and be able to use the properties of a particle to deduce the properties of its antiparticle and vice versa. 142 Understand how to use laws of conservation of charge, baryon number and lepton number to determine whether a particle interaction is possible. 143 Be able to write and interpret particle equations given the relevant particle symbols. Top Topic 9 - Thermodynamics 144 Be able to use the equations: and 145 CORE PRACTICAL 12: Calibrate a thermistor in a potential divider circuit as a thermostat. 146 CORE PRACTICAL 13: Determine the specific latent heat of a phase change. 147 Understand the concept of internal energy as the random distribution of potential and kinetic energy amongst molecules. 148 Understand the concept of absolute zero and how the average kinetic energy of molecules is related to the absolute temperature. (Thermodynamics is discussed more in .) 149 Be able to derive and use the equation: using the kinetic theory model. 150 Be able to use the equation: for an ideal gas. 151 CORE PRACTICAL 14: Investigate the relationship between pressure and volume of a gas at fixed temperature. 152 Be able to derive and use the equation: 153 Understand what is meant by a black body radiator and be able to interpret radiation curves for such a radiator. 154 Be able to use the Stefan-Boltzmann law equation: for black body radiators. 155 Be able to use Wien’s law equation: for black body radiators. Top Topic 10 - Space 156 Be able to use the equation: where L is luminosity and d is distance from the source. 157 Understand how astronomical distances can be determined using trigonometric parallax. 158 Understand how astronomical distances can be determined using measurements of intensity received from standard candles (objects of known luminosity). 159 Be able to sketch and interpret a simple Hertzsprung-Russell diagram that relates stellar luminosity to surface temperature. 160 Understand how to relate the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to the life cycle of stars. 161 Understand how the movement of a source of waves relative to an observer/detector gives rise to a shift in frequency (Doppler effect). 162 Be able to use the equations for red-shift: for a source of electromagnetic radiation moving relative to an observer and for objects at cosmological distances. 163 understand the controversy over the age and ultimate fate of the universe associated with the value of the Hubble constant and the possible existence of dark matter. Top Topic 11 - Nuclear Radiation 164 Understand the concept of nuclear binding energy and be able to use the equation: in calculations of nuclear mass (including mass deficit) and energy. 165 Use the atomic mass unit (u) to express small masses and convert between this and SI units 166 Understand the processes of nuclear fusion and fission with reference to the binding energy per nucleon curve. 167 Understand the mechanism of nuclear fusion and the need for very high densities of matter and very high temperatures to bring about and maintain nuclear fusion. 168 Understand that there is background radiation and how to take appropriate account of it in calculations. 169 Understand the relationships between the nature, penetration, ionising ability and range in different materials of nuclear radiations (alpha, beta and gamma). 170 Be able to write and interpret nuclear equations given the relevant particle symbols. 171 CORE PRACTICAL 15: Investigate the absorption of gamma radiation by lead. 172 Understand the spontaneous and random nature of nuclear decay. 173 be able to determine the half-lives of radioactive isotopes graphically and be able to use the equations for radioactive decay: and derive and use the corresponding log equations. Top Topic 12 - Gravitational Fields 174 Understand that a gravitational field (force field) is defined as a region where a mass experiences a force 175 Understand that gravitational field strength is defined as and be able to use this equation. 176 be able to use the equation: (Newton’s law of universal gravitation) 177 Be able to derive and use the equation: for the gravitational field due to a point mass. 178 Be able to use the equation: for a radial gravitational field. 179 Be able to compare electric fields with gravitational fields. 180 Be able to apply Newton’s laws of motion and universal gravitation to orbital motion. Top Topic 13 - Oscillations 181 Understand that the condition for simple harmonic motion is: and hence understand how to identify situations in which simple harmonic motion will occur 182 Be able to use the equations: and as applied to a simple harmonic oscillator. 183 Be able to use equations for a simple harmonic oscillator: and a simple pendulum: 184 Be able to draw and interpret a displacement–time graph for an object oscillating and know that the gradient at a point gives the velocity at that point. 185 Be able to draw and interpret a velocity–time graph for an oscillating object and know that the gradient at a point gives the acceleration at that point. 186 Understand what is meant by resonance. 187 CORE PRACTICAL 16: Determine the value of an unknown mass using the resonant frequencies of the oscillation of known masses. 188 Understand how to apply conservation of energy to damped and undamped oscillating systems 189 Understand the distinction between free and forced oscillations. 190 Understand how the amplitude of a forced oscillation changes at and around the natural frequency of a system and know, qualitatively, how damping affects resonance 191 Understand how damping and the plastic deformation of ductile materials reduce the amplitude of oscillation. 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