  OCR  Syllabus Year 2 (A-level) Home   AS   A-Level Module 5: Newtonian World and Astrophysics 5.1 Thermal physics 5.1.1 Temperature 5.1.2 Solid, liquid and gas (a) Thermal equilibrium. (a) Solids, liquids and gases in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of atoms or molecules (b) Absolute scale of temperature (i.e. the thermodynamic scale) that does not depend on property of any particular substance. (b) Simple kinetic model for solids, liquids and gases. (c) Temperature measurements both in degrees Celsius  (°C) and in Kelvin (K). (c) Brownian motion in terms of the kinetic model of matter and a simple demonstration using smoke particles suspended in air. (d) (d) Internal energy as the sum of the random distribution of kinetic and potential energies associated with the molecules of a system. (e) Absolute zero (0 K) as the lowest limit for temperature; the temperature at which a substance has minimum internal energy. (f) Increase in the internal energy of a body as its temperature rises. (g) Changes in the internal energy of a substance during change of phase; constant temperature during change of phase. 5.1.3 Thermal properties of materials 5.1.4 Ideal gases (a) Specific heat capacity of a substance; the equation: (a) Amount of substance in moles; Avogadro constant NA equals 6.02 × 1023 mol–1. (b) (i) An electrical experiment to determine the specific heat capacity of a metal or a liquid;     (ii) Techniques and procedures used for an electrical method to determine the specific heat capacity of a metal block and a liquid. (b) Model of kinetic theory of gases. (c) Specific latent heat of fusion and specific latent heat of vaporisation: E = mL (c) Pressure in terms of this model. (d) (i) An electrical experiment to determine the specific latent heat of fusion and vaporisation      (ii) Techniques and procedures used for an electrical method to determine the specific latent heat of a solid and a liquid. (d) (i) The equation of state of an ideal gas pV = nRT, where n is the number of moles      (ii) Techniques and procedures used to investigate PV = constant (Boyle’s law) and: (iii) An estimation of absolute zero using variation of gas temperature with pressure. e) The equation: where N is the number of particles (atoms or molecules) and c2 bar is the mean square speed (f) Root mean square (r.m.s.) speed; mean square speed (g) The Boltzmann constant: (h)  Derivation of: (i) internal energy of an ideal gas. 5.2 Circular motion 5.2.1 Kinematics of circular motion 5.2.2 Centripetal force (a) The radian as a measure of angle. (a) A constant net force perpendicular to the velocity of an object causes it to travel in a circular path. (b) Period and frequency of an object in circular motion (b) Constant speed in a circle: (c) Angular velocity: (c) Centripetal acceleration: (d) (i) centripetal force: (ii) techniques and procedures used to investigate circular motion using a whirling bung. 5.3 Oscillations 5.3.1 Simple harmonic oscillations 5.3.2 Energy of a simple harmonic oscillator (a) Displacement, amplitude, period, frequency, angular frequency and phase difference. (a) Interchange between kinetic and potential energy during simple harmonic motion. (b) Angular frequency: (b) Energy-displacement graphs for a simple harmonic oscillator. (c) (i) Simple harmonic motion; defining equation: (ii) techniques and procedures used to determine the period/frequency of simple harmonic oscillations 5.3.3 Damping (d) Solutions to the equation: i.e.: (a) Free and forced oscillations. (e) Velocity: Hence: (b) (i) The effects of damping on an oscillatory system.      (ii) observe forced and damped oscillations for a range of systems (f) The period of a simple harmonic oscillator is independent of its amplitude (isochronous oscillator). (c) Resonance; natural frequency. (g) Graphical methods to relate the changes in displacement, velocity and acceleration during simple harmonic motion. (d) Amplitude-driving frequency graphs for forced oscillators (e) Practical examples of forced oscillations and resonance. 5.4 Gravitational fields 5.4.1 Point and spherical masses 5.4.2 Newton’s law of gravitation (a) Gravitational fields are due to objects having mass. (a) Newton’s law of gravitation: for the force between two point masses (b) Modelling the mass of a spherical object as a point mass at its centre (b) Gravitational field strength: for a point mass (c) Gravitational field lines to map gravitational fields. (c) Gravitational field strength is uniform close to the surface of the Earth and numerically equal to the acceleration of free fall. (d) Gravitational field strength: (e) The concept of gravitational fields as being one of a number of forms of field giving rise to a force. 5.4.3 Planetary motion 5.4.4 Gravitational potential and energy (a) Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion (a) Gravitational potential at a point as the work done in bringing unit mass from infinity to the point; gravitational potential is zero at infinity. (b) The centripetal force on a planet is provided by the gravitational force between it and the Sun (b) Gravitational potential: at a distance r from a point mass M; changes in gravitational potential. (c) The equation: (c) Force–distance graph for a point or spherical mass; work done is area under graph. (d) The relationship for Kepler’s third law applied to systems other than our solar system. (d) Gravitational potential energy: at a distance r from a point mass M (e) Geostationary orbit; uses of geostationary satellites. (e) Escape velocity. 5.5 Astrophysics and cosmology 5.5.1 Stars 5.5.2 Electromagnetic radiation from stars (a) The terms planets, planetary satellites, comets, solar systems, galaxies and the universe. (a) Energy levels of electrons in isolated gas atoms. (b) Formation of a star from interstellar dust and gas in terms of gravitational collapse, fusion of hydrogen into helium, radiation and gas pressure. (b) The idea that energy levels have negative values. (c) Evolution of a low-mass star like our Sun into a red giant and white dwarf; planetary nebula (c) Emission spectral lines from hot gases in terms of emission of photons and transition of electrons between discrete energy levels. (d) Characteristics of a white dwarf; electron degeneracy pressure; Chandrasekhar limit. (d) The equations: (e) Evolution of a massive star into a red super giant and then either a neutron star or black hole; supernova. (e) Different atoms have different spectral lines which can be used to identify elements within stars. (f) Characteristics of a neutron star and a black hole. (f) Continuous spectrum, emission line spectrum and absorption line spectrum. (g) Hertzsprung–Russell (HR) diagram as luminosity-temperature plot; main sequence; red giants; super red giants; white dwarfs. (g) Transmission diffraction grating used to determine the wavelength of light. (h) The condition for maxima: where d is the grating spacing. (i) Use of Wien’s displacement law: to estimate the peak surface temperature (of a star). (j) Luminosity L of a star; Stefan’s law: where s is the Stefan constant. (k) Use of Wien’s displacement law and Stefan’s law to estimate the radius of a star. 5.5.3 Cosmology (a) Distances measured in astronomical unit (AU), light-year (ly) and parsec (pc) Astrophysics 4 (h) Model of an expanding universe supported by galactic red shift. Astrophysics 7 (b) Stellar parallax; distances the parsec (pc). (i) Hubble constant H0 in both km s–1 Mpc–1 and s–1 units. Astrophysics 7 (c) The equation where p is the parallax in seconds of arc and d is the distance in parsec Astrophysics 7 (j) The Big Bang theory. Astrophysics 7 (d) The Cosmological principle; universe is homogeneous, isotropic and the laws of physics are universal Astrophysics 7 (k) Experimental evidence for the Big Bang theory from microwave background radiation at a temperature of 2.7 K Astrophysics 7 (e) Doppler effect; Doppler shift of electromagnetic radiation Astrophysics 7 (l) The idea that the Big Bang gave rise to the expansion of space-time. Astrophysics 7 (f) Doppler equation: for a source of electromagnetic radiation moving relative to an observer. Astrophysics 7 (m) Estimation for the age of the universe: Astrophysics 7 (g) Hubble’s law for receding galaxies, where H0 is the Hubble constant Astrophysics 7 (n) Evolution of the universe after the Big Bang to the present Astrophysics 7 (o) Current ideas; universe is made up of dark energy, dark matter, and a small percentage of ordinary matter. Astrophysics 7 Module 6: Particles and medical physics 6.1 Capacitors 6.1.1 Capacitors 6.1.2 Energy (a) Capacitance: the unit farad. (a) p.d. – charge graph for a capacitor; energy stored is area under graph. (b) Charging and discharging of a capacitor or capacitor plates with reference to the flow of electrons. (b) Energy stored by capacitor: (c) Total capacitance of two or more capacitors in series: (c) Uses of capacitors as storage of energy. Capacitors 1 (d) Total capacitance of two or more capacitors in parallel:  (e) (i) analysis of circuits containing capacitors, including resistors     (ii) techniques and procedures used to investigate capacitors in both series and parallel combinations using ammeters and voltmeters. 6.1.3 Charging and discharging capacitors (a) (i) Charging and discharging capacitor through a resistor     (ii) techniques and procedures to investigate the charge and the discharge of a capacitor using both meters and data-loggers (b) Time constant of a capacitor–resistor circuit: (c) equations of the form: and for capacitor–resistor circuits. (d) graphical methods and spreadsheet modelling of the equation: for a discharging capacitor. Capacitors 2 (e) Exponential decay graph; constant-ratio property of such a graph. Capacitors 2 6.2 Electric fields 6.2.1 Point and spherical charges 6.2.2 Coulomb’s law (a) Electric fields are due to charges. (a) Coulomb’s law: for the force between two point charges. (b) Modelling a uniformly charged sphere as a point charge at its centre. (b) Electric field strength: for a point charge (c) Electric field lines to map electric fields (c) Similarities and differences between the gravitational field of a point mass and the electric field of a point charge. (d) Electric field strength: (d) The concept of electric fields as being one of a number of forms of field giving rise to a force. 6.2.3 Uniform electric field 6.2.4 Electric potential and energy (a) Uniform electric field strength: (a) Electric potential at a point as the work done in bringing unit positive charge from infinity to the point; electric potential is zero at infinity. (b) Parallel plate capacitor; permittivity: (b) Electric potential: at a distance r from a point charge; changes in electric potential. (c) Motion of charged particles in a uniform electric field. (c) Capacitance: for an isolated sphere. (d) Force–distance graph for a point or spherical charge; work done is area under graph (e) Electric potential energy: a distance r from a point charge Q 6.3 Electromagnetism 6.3.1 Magnetic fields 6.3.2 Motion of charged particles (a) Magnetic fields are due to moving charges or permanent magnets. (a) Force on a charged particle travelling at right angles to a uniform magnetic field; F = BQv. (b) Magnetic field lines to map magnetic fields. (b) Charged particles moving in a uniform magnetic field; circular orbits of charged particles in a uniform magnetic field. (c) Magnetic field patterns for a long straight current carrying conductor, a flat coil and a long solenoid (c) Charged particles moving in a region occupied by both electric and magnetic fields; velocity selector. (d) Fleming’s left-hand rule. (e) (i) Force on a current-carrying conductor: (ii) techniques and procedures used to determine the uniform magnetic flux density between the poles of a magnet using a current-carrying wire and digital balance. (f) Magnetic flux density; the unit tesla. 6.3.3 Electromagnetism (a) Magnetic flux f; the unit weber: (b) Magnetic flux linkage. (c) Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction and Lenz’s law. Mag Fields 5 (d) (i) e.m.f. = − rate of change of magnetic flux linkage: (ii) Techniques and procedures used to investigate magnetic flux using search coils Mag Fields 5 (e) Simple a.c. generator. Mag Fields 6 (f) (i) simple laminated iron-cored transformer; for an ideal transformer (ii) techniques and procedures used to investigate transformers. Mag Fields 7 6.4 Nuclear and particle physics 6.4.1 The nuclear atom 6.4.2 Fundamental particles (a) Alpha-particle scattering experiment; evidence of a small charged nucleus. (a) Particles and antiparticles; electron–positron, proton-antiproton, neutron-antineutron and neutrino-antineutrino. (b) Simple nuclear model of the atom; protons, neutrons and electrons. (b) Particle and its corresponding antiparticle have same mass; electron and positron have opposite charge; proton and antiproton have opposite charge. (c) Relative sizes of atom and nucleus. (c) Classification of hadrons; proton and neutron as examples of hadrons; all hadrons are subject to both the strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force. (d) proton number; nucleon number; isotopes; notation for the representation of nuclei. (d) Classification of leptons; electron and neutrino as examples of leptons; all leptons are subject to the weak nuclear force but not the strong nuclear force. (e) Strong nuclear force; short-range nature of the force; attractive to about 3 fm and repulsive below about 0.5 fm. (e) Simple quark model of hadrons in terms of up (u), down (d) and strange (s) quarks and their respective anti-quarks. (f) Radius of nuclei: where r0 is a constant and A is the nucleon number (f) Quark model of the proton (uud) and the neutron (udd) (g) Mean densities of atoms and nuclei. (g) Charges of the up (u), down (d), strange (s), anti‑up (u-bar), anti-down (d-bar) and the anti-strange (s-bar) quarks as fractions of the elementary charge e. (h) Beta-minus (β-) decay; beta-plus (β+) decay (i) β– decay in terms of a quark model: (j) β+ decay in terms of a quark model: (k) Balancing of quark transformation equations in terms of charge. (l) Decay of particles in terms of the quark model. 6.4.3 Radioactivity 6.4.4 Nuclear fission and fusion (a) Radioactive decay; spontaneous and random nature of decay. (a) Einstein’s mass–energy equation: (b) (i) α-particles, β-particles and γ-rays; nature, penetration and range of these radiations  (ii) techniques and procedures used to investigate the absorption of α-particles, β-particles and γ-rays by appropriate materials (b) Energy released (or absorbed) in simple nuclear reactions. (c) Nuclear decay equations for alpha, beta-minus and beta-plus decays; balancing nuclear transformation equations. (c) Creation and annihilation of particle–antiparticle pairs (d) Activity of a source; decay constant l of an isotope; A = lN. (d) Mass defect; binding energy; binding energy per nucleon. (e) (i) Half-life of an isotope: (ii) techniques and procedures used to determine the half-life of an isotope such as protactinium (e) Binding energy per nucleon against nucleon number curve; energy changes in reactions. (f) (i) the equations: where A is the activity and N is the number of undecayed nuclei. (ii) simulation of radioactive decay using dice. (f) Binding energy of nuclei using and masses of nuclei (g) Graphical methods and spreadsheet modelling of the equation: for radioactive decay. (g) Induced nuclear fission; chain reaction. (h) Radioactive dating, e.g. carbon-dating. (h) Basic structure of a fission reactor; components – fuel rods, control rods and moderator. Nuclear 8 (i) Environmental impact of nuclear waste. (j) Nuclear fusion; fusion reactions and temperature. (k) Balancing nuclear transformation equations. 6.5 Medical imaging 6.5.1 Using X-rays 6.5.2 Diagnostic methods in medicine (a) Basic structure of an X-ray tube; components – heater (cathode), anode, target metal and high voltage supply. (a) Medical tracers; technetium–99m and fluorine–18. (b) Production of X-ray photons from an X-ray tube. (b) Gamma camera; components – collimator, scintillator, photomultiplier tubes, computer and display; formation of image. (c) X-ray attenuation mechanisms; simple scatter, photoelectric effect, Compton effect and pair production. (c) Diagnosis using gamma camera. (d) Attenuation of X-rays where m is the attenuation (absorption) coefficient. (d) Positron emission tomography (PET) scanner; annihilation of positron–electron pairs; formation of image. (e) X-ray imaging with contrast media; barium and iodine (e) Diagnosis using PET scanning. (f) Computerised axial tomography (CAT) scanning; components – rotating X-tube producing a thin fan-shaped X-ray beam, ring of detectors, computer software and display. (g) Advantages of a CAT scan over an X-ray image. 6.5.3 Using ultrasound (a) Ultrasound; longitudinal wave with frequency greater than 20 kHz. (b) Piezoelectric effect; ultrasound transducer as a device that emits and receives ultrasound. (c) Ultrasound A-scan and B-scan. (d) Acoustic impedance of a medium; (e) Reflection of ultrasound at a boundary: (f) Impedance (acoustic) matching; special gel used in ultrasound scanning. (g) Doppler effect in ultrasound; speed of blood in the patient: for determining the speed v of blood. Med Phys 5 There are no options in this syllabus That's it