SQA National 5 Physics

(Secondary Year 4)

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Dynamics     Space      Electricity       Properties of Matter       Waves       Radiation

Dynamics

Forces, energy and power

Definition of vector and scalar quantities.

Mechanics 2 for comparing accurate drawing and calculation

Mechanics 1

Identification of force, speed, velocity, distance, displacement, acceleration, mass, time and energy as vector or scalar quantities.

Mechanics 1

Calculation of the resultant of two vector quantities in one dimension or at right angles.

Mechanics 1

Determination of displacement and/or distance using scale diagram or calculation.

Mechanics 1

Mechanics 2

Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving velocity, speed
displacement, distance and time.

Mechanics 6

Description of experiments to measure average and instantaneous speed.

Mechanics 6

Velocity–time graphs

Drawing or sketching of velocity–time or speed–time graphs from data.

Equations of motion not expected

Mechanics 6

Interpretation of a velocity–time graph to describe the motion of an object.

Mechanics 6

Determination of displacement from a velocity–time graph.

Mechanics 6

s = area under v-t graph.

Mechanics 6

Acceleration

Definition of acceleration in terms of initial velocity, final velocity and time.

Equations of motion not expected

Mechanics 6

Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving acceleration, initial velocity (or speed), final velocity (or speed) and time.

Mechanics 6

Determination of acceleration from a velocity–time graph.

Mechanics 6

a = gradient of the line on a v-t graph.

Mechanics 6

Description of an experiment to measure acceleration.

Mechanics 6

Newton's Laws

Application of Newton’s laws and balanced forces to explain constant velocity (orspeed), making reference to frictional forces.

F = ma

 

W = mg

 

Derivation for Newton II not expected

Mechanics 10

Application of Newton’s laws and unbalanced forces to explain and/or determine acceleration for situations where more than one force is acting.

Mechanics 10

Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving unbalanced force, mass and acceleration for situations where one or more forces are acting in one dimension or at right angles.

Mechanics 10

Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving weight, mass and gravitational field strength.

Mechanics 7

Explanation of motion resulting from a ‘reaction’ force in terms of Newton’s third law.

Mechanics 10

Explanation of free-fall and terminal velocity in terms of Newton’s laws.

Mechanics 7

Energy

Explanation of energy conservation and of energy conversion and transfer.

Forces are not an angle

Mechanics 13

Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving work done, unbalanced force and distance/displacement.

Mechanics 13

Definition of gravitational potential energy.

Mechanics 15

Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving gravitational potential energy, mass, gravitational field strength and height.

Mechanics 15

Definition of kinetic energy.

Mechanics 15

Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving kinetic energy, mass and speed.

Mechanics 15

Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving conservation of energy.

Mechanics 15

Projectile motion

Explanation of projectile motion in terms of constant vertical acceleration and constant horizontal velocity.

 

Projectiles thrown in horizontal and vertical directions only, not at an angle.

Centripetal Force from the GCSE AQA triple award gives a context for satellite motion.

Mechanics 9

Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving projectile motion from a horizontal launch, including the use of motion graphs.

Mechanics 9

Explanation of satellite orbits in terms of projectile motion, horizontal velocity and weight.

Orbits and Satellites

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Space

Space exploration

Basic awareness of our current understanding of the universe.

 

Core 12

Use of the following terms correctly and in context: planet, dwarf planet, moon, Sun, asteroid, solar system, star, exoplanet, galaxy, universe.

Introduction only

Astrophysics 1

Awareness of the benefits of satellites: GPS, weather forecasting, communications, scientific discovery and space exploration (for example Hubble telescope, ISS).

Description only is required

Astrophysics 3

Knowledge that geostationary satellites have a period of 24 hours and orbit at an altitude of 36 000 km.

Description only is required

Fields 3

Knowledge that the period of a satellite in a high altitude orbit is greater than the period of a satellite in a lower altitude orbit.

Description only is required

Fields 3

Awareness of the challenges of space travel:
 travelling large distances with the possible solution of attaining high velocity by using ion drive (producing a small unbalanced force over an extended period of time);
 travelling large distances using a ‘catapult’ from a fast moving asteroid, moon or planet.
 manoeuvring a spacecraft in a zero friction environment, possibly to dock with the ISS.
 maintaining sufficient energy to operate life support systems in a spacecraft, with the possible solution of using solar cells with area that varies with distance from the Sun.

 

Core 12

Awareness of the risks associated with manned space exploration:
 fuel load on take-off;
 potential exposure to radiation;
 pressure differential;
 re-entry through an atmosphere.

 

Core 12

Knowledge of Newton’s second and third laws and their application to space travel, rocket launch and landing.

Rocket Science - description only

Mechanics 12

Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving weight, mass and gravitational field strength, in different locations in the universe.

W = mg

Action of gravity fields only.

Mechanics 7

Cosmology

Use of the term ‘light year’ and conversion between light years and metres.

Ignore the Parsec and Magnitude

Astrophysics 4

Basic description of the ‘Big Bang’ theory of the origin of the universe.

Description only

Astrophysics 7

Knowledge of the approximate estimated age of the universe.

Description only

Astrophysics 7

Awareness of the use of the whole electromagnetic spectrum in obtaining information about astronomical objects.

 

Astrophysics 3

Identification of continuous and line spectra.

Absorption and Emission spectra only

Quantum 3

Use of spectral data for known elements, to identify the elements present in stars.

Description only

Astrophysics 5

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Electricity

Electrical Charge Carriers

Definition of electrical current as the electric charge transferred per unit time.

Q = It

See also Electricity 1

Additional GCSE 9

Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving charge, current and time.

Electricity 1

Knowledge of the difference between alternating and direct current.

Additional GCSE 10

Identification of a source (as a.c. or d.c.) based on oscilloscope trace or image from data logging software.

Additional GCSE 10

Potential difference (voltage)

Knowledge that a charged particle experiences a force in an electric field.

Fields 4 Representing Electric Fields

- description only

See also Additional GCSE 8

Fields 4

Knowledge of the path a charged particle follows: between two oppositely charged parallel plates; near a single point charge; between two oppositely charged points; between two like charged points.

Fields 4

Knowledge that the potential difference (voltage) of the supply is a measure of the energy given to the charge carriers in a circuit.

Electricity 1

Ohm’s law

Calculation of the gradient of the line of best fit on a V-I graph to determine resistance.

 

Use of

is NOT expected.

 

Ohm's law verification for resistor only

Electricity 2

Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving potential difference (voltage), current and resistance.

Electricity 2

Electricity 6 (Potential Divider)

Knowledge of the qualitative relationship between the temperature and resistance of a conductor.

Electricity 2

Description of an experiment to verify Ohm’s law.

Electricity 3

Practical electrical and electronic circuits

Measurement of current, potential difference (voltage) and resistance, using appropriate meters in simple and complex circuits.

Calculation of shunts and multipliers is NOT expected

Electricity 1

Knowledge of the circuit symbol, function and application of standard electrical and electronic components: cell, battery, lamp, switch, resistor, voltmeter, ammeter, LED, motor, microphone, loudspeaker, photovoltaic cell, fuse, diode, capacitor, thermistor, LDR, relay, transistor.

Download this .pdf file and use it regularly

Electrical and Electronic Components

Electricity 6

For transistors, knowledge of the symbols for an npn transistor and an n-channel enhancement mode MOSFET. Explanation of their function as a switch in transistor switching circuits.

See also my website on Electricity, Electronics, and Electrical Engineering for Bipolar Transistors and MOSFETS.

Link HERE

Electronics 1

Application of the rules for current and potential difference (voltage) in series and parallel circuits.

Electricity 7

Knowledge of the effect on the total resistance of a circuit of adding further resistance in series or in parallel.

Kirchhoff's Laws not expected.

Electricity 7

Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving the total resistance of resistors in series and in parallel circuits, and in circuits with a combination of series and parallel resistors.

Electricity 7

Electrical power

Definition of electrical power in terms of electrical energy and time.

 

Electricity 5

Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving energy, power and time.

Electricity 5

Knowledge of the effect of potential difference (voltage) and resistance on the current in and power developed across components in a circuit.

Electricity 5

Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving power, potential difference (voltage), current and resistance in electrical circuits.

Electricity 5

Selection of an appropriate fuse rating given the power rating of an electrical appliance. A 3 A fuse should be selected for most appliances rated up to 720 W, a 13 A fuse for appliances rated over 720 W.

Additional Physics 10

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Properties of matter

Specific heat capacity

Knowledge that different materials require different quantities of heat to raise the temperature of unit mass by one degree Celsius.

 

In the notes the physics code is written:

E = mcDq

Core Physics 4

Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving mass, heat energy, temperature change and specific heat capacity.

Core Physics 4

Knowledge that the temperature of a substance is a measure of the mean kinetic energy of its particles.

Core Physics 2

Use of the principle of conservation of energy to determine heat transfer.

Core Physics 3

Core Physics 5

Specific latent heat

Knowledge that different materials require different quantities of heat to change the state of unit mass.

Thermal Physics 1

Knowledge that the same material requires different quantities of heat to change the state of unit mass from solid to liquid (fusion) and to change the state of unit mass from liquid to gas (vaporisation).

Thermal Physics 1

Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving mass, heat energy and specific latent heat.

Thermal Physics 1

Gas laws and the kinetic model

Definition of pressure in terms of force and area.

The notes describe a hydraulic system, but the equation is applicable to gases as well

Triple Physics 8

Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving pressure, force and area.

Triple Physics 8

Description of how the kinetic model accounts for the pressure of a gas.

Core Physics 2

Knowledge of the relationship between Kelvin and degrees Celsius and the absolute zero of temperature.

Thermal Physics 2

Explanation of the pressure–volume, pressure–temperature and volume–temperature laws qualitatively in terms of a kinetic model.

Thermal Physics 2

Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving the volume, pressure and temperature of a fixed mass of gas.

Thermal Physics 2

Description of experiments to verify the pressure–volume law (Boyle’s law), the pressure–temperature law (Gay-Lussac’s law) and the volume–temperature law (Charles’ law).

Thermal Physics 2

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Waves

Wave parameters and behaviours

Knowledge that waves transfer energy.

 

See also Waves 1 for Terms used with waves.

Core Physics 9

Definition of transverse and longitudinal waves.

Core Physics 9

Knowledge that sound is an example of a longitudinal wave and electromagnetic radiation and water waves are examples of transverse waves.

Core Physics 9

Determination of the frequency, period, wavelength, amplitude and wave speed for longitudinal and transverse waves.

Core Physics 11

Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving wave speed, frequency, period, wavelength, distance, number of waves and time.

Core Physics 11

Knowledge that diffraction occurs when waves pass through a gap or around an object.

Core Physics 9

Comparison of long wave and short wave diffraction.

Core Physics 9

Draw diagrams using wavefronts to show diffraction when waves pass through a gap or around an object.

Core Physics 9

Electromagnetic spectrum

Knowledge of the relative frequency and wavelength of bands of the electromagnetic spectrum.

See also Waves 2 and Particles 3

Core Physics 9

Knowledge of typical sources, detectors and applications for each band in the
electromagnetic spectrum.

Core Physics 9

Knowledge that all radiations in the electromagnetic spectrum are transverse and travel at the speed of light.

Core Physics 9

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Radiation

Electrical sources and internal resistance

Knowledge of the nature of alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ) radiation.

See also Particles 2 for radioactive decay

 

 

 

 

Additional Physics 13

Knowledge of the term ‘ionisation’ and the effect of ionisation on neutral atoms.

Particles 1

Knowledge of the relative ionising effect and penetration of alpha, beta and gamma radiation.

Additional Physics 13

Definition of activity in terms of the number of nuclear disintegrations and time.

Additional Physics 13

Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving activity, number of nuclear disintegrations and time.

Additional Physics 13

Knowledge of sources of background radiation.

Additional Physics 13

Knowledge of the dangers of ionising radiation to living cells and of the need to measure exposure to radiation.

Additional Physics 13

Use of appropriate relationships to solve problems involving absorbed dose, equivalent dose, energy, mass and weighting factor.

Additional Physics 13

Use of an appropriate relationship to solve problems involving equivalent dose rate, equivalent dose and time.

Additional Physics 13

Comparison of equivalent dose due to a variety of natural and artificial sources.

Additional Physics 13

Knowledge of equivalent dose rate and exposure safety limits for the public and for
workers in the radiation industries in terms of annual effective equivalent dose.
 Average annual background radiation in UK: 2.2 mSv.
 Annual effective dose limit for member of the public: 1 mSv.
 Annual effective dose limit for radiation worker: 20 mSv.

Additional Physics 13

Awareness of applications of nuclear radiation: electricity generation, cancer treatment and other industrial and medical uses.

Additional Physics 13

Definition of half-life.

Additional Physics 13

Use of graphical or numerical data to determine the half-life of a radioactive material.

Additional Physics 13

Description of an experiment to measure the half-life of a radioactive material.

Additional Physics 13

Qualitative description of fission, chain reactions, and their role in the generation of energy.

Additional Physics 14

Qualitative description of fusion, plasma containment, and their role in the generation of energy.

Additional Physics 15

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Units, prefixes and uncertainties

Units, prefixes and scientific notation

Appropriate use of units and prefixes.

You will be expected to use these skills as a matter of course.

Induction 1

Use of the appropriate number of significant figures in final answers.

Induction 2

Appropriate use of scientific notation.

Induction 2

That is it.

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