James Ward

Topic 9 Capacitors

Capacitors consist of two metal plates separated by a layer of insulating material called a dielectric.   Capacitance is measured in units called farads (F). A farad is a very...

Topic 8 Operational Amplifiers

The operational amplifier was originally developed for analogue computing (our PCs are digital computers) and when introduced were complex and expensive components.  Now they are in...

Topic 6 Transistors and MOSFETs

Transistors are solid state electronic switches.  Solid state means that there are no moving parts, and the switching action is regulated by the arrangement of the semiconductor materials. A...

Topic 5 Resistive Input Transducers

A resistive transducer is a device that senses a change to cause a change in resistance.  Transducers do NOT generate electricity.  Examples include: Device Action Where used Light Dependent Resistor Resistance falls with increasing light level Light operated switches Thermistor Resistance falls...

Topic 4 Diodes

Silicon Diodes and Zener Diodes Diodes are one-way electrical valves that allow current to flow in one direction only. Click HERE to find out how diodes are made. ...

Topic 3 Basic Electricity

Grounding In many circuits, a zero reference point is shown connected to earth, or grounded. In this circuit, the point Y has been connected to ground, and is at 0 V.  Therefore point X could be...

Topic 2 Logic Gates and Boolean Algebra

Logic gates are at the heart of digital electronics.  In digital electronics, we need to know nothing about electricity, other than the difference between on (1) and off (0). Digital electronics...

Topic 1 System Synthesis

Electronic systems consist of: · An input device to sense changes, e.g. a light detector · A processor that responds to the change · An output device that enables the system to do something useful. · There may...
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